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12th Century

1187 – The Battle of Hattin

4 July

During the Crusades, Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin on this day in 1187. Continue reading “1187 – The Battle of Hattin”

1199 – King Richard I of England dies

6 April

Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death on this day in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy (as Richard IV), Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Nantes, and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior. He was also known in Occitan as Oc e No (Yes and No), because of his reputation for terseness. Continue reading “1199 – King Richard I of England dies”

1152 – Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of Germany

4 March

Frederick I (1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick Barbarossa, was the Holy Roman Emperor from 1155 until his death. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on this day in 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March 1152. He became King of Italy in 1155 and was crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV on 18 June 1155. Two years later, the term sacrum (“holy”) first appeared in a document in connection with his Empire. He was later formally crowned King of Burgundy, at Arles on 30 June 1178. He got the name Barbarossa from the northern Italian cities he attempted to rule: Barbarossa means “red beard” in Italian; in German, he was known as Kaiser Rotbart, which has the same meaning. Continue reading “1152 – Frederick I Barbarossa is elected King of Germany”

1170 – Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral

29 December

Thomas Becket (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. Continue reading “1170 – Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, is assassinated inside Canterbury Cathedral”

1135 – Coronation of King Stephen of England

26 December

Stephen (c. 1092/6 – 25 October 1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois, was a grandson of William the Conqueror. He was King of England from 1135 to his death, and also the Count of Boulogne in right of his wife. Stephen’s reign was marked by the Anarchy, a civil war with his cousin and rival, the Empress Matilda. He was succeeded by Matilda’s son, Henry II, the first of the Angevin kings. Continue reading “1135 – Coronation of King Stephen of England”

1120 – The ‘White Ship’ sinks in the English Channel

25 November

The White Ship was a vessel that sank in the English Channel near the Normandy coast off Barfleur, on this day in 1120. Continue reading “1120 – The ‘White Ship’ sinks in the English Channel”

1180 – Phillip II becomes king of France

Philip II, called Philip Augustus (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was a King of France from the House of Capet who reigned from 1180 to 1223. Continue reading “1180 – Phillip II becomes king of France”

1106 – The Battle of Tinchebray

28 September – On this day

The Battle of Tinchebray was fought on this day in 1106, in the town of Tinchebray, Normandy, between an invading force led by King Henry I of England, and his older brother Robert Curthose, the Duke of Normandy. Continue reading “1106 – The Battle of Tinchebray”

Remains of 50 people found at Westminster Abbey

The remains appear to belong mostly to men from the 11th or early 12th centuries but also include the remains of a 3 year-old child. Continue reading “Remains of 50 people found at Westminster Abbey”

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