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Italy

Roman Metro Works Uncover a Second Century “Commander’s house”

A domus connected to a dormitory and a barracks built at the time of Emperor Trajan and then modified by Hadrian has been uncovered during the ongoing Metro works in Rome.

Continue reading “Roman Metro Works Uncover a Second Century “Commander’s house””

1559 – Henry II of France is mortally wounded

30 June

King Henry II of France is mortally wounded in a jousting match against Gabriel, comte de Montgomery. Continue reading “1559 – Henry II of France is mortally wounded”

457 – Majorian is acclaimed emperor by the Roman army

1 April

A prominent general of the Late Roman army, Majorian deposed Emperor Avitus in 457 and succeeded him. Majorian was one of the last emperors to make a concerted effort to restore the Western Roman Empire. Possessing little more than Italy, Dalmatia, and some territory in northern Gaul, Majorian campaigned rigorously for three years against the Empire’s enemies. Continue reading “457 – Majorian is acclaimed emperor by the Roman army”

1849 – The Battle of Novara

22 March

The Battle of Novara or Battle of Bicocca (Bicocca is a borough of Novara) was one of the battles fought between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia during the First Italian War of Independence, within the era of Italian unification. Lasting the whole day of 22 March 1849 and ending at dawn on 23 March, it resulted in a severe defeat and retreat of the Piedmontese (Sardinian) army. Continue reading “1849 – The Battle of Novara”

1944 – The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy kills 26 people and causes thousands to flee their homes

18 March

Mount Vesuvius is a stratovolcano in the Gulf of Naples, Italy, about 9 km (5.6 mi) east of Naples and a short distance from the shore. It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius consists of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure. Continue reading “1944 – The eruption of Mount Vesuvius in Italy kills 26 people and causes thousands to flee their homes”

1387 – Battle of Castagnaro

11 March

The Battle of Castagnaro was fought on this day in 1387 at Castagnaro (today’s Veneto, northern Italy) between Verona and Padua. It is one of the most famous battles of the Italian condottieri* age. Continue reading “1387 – Battle of Castagnaro”

1525 – A Spanish-Austrian army defeats a French army at the Battle of Pavia

24 February

The Battle of Pavia, fought in the morning on this day in 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–26. Continue reading “1525 – A Spanish-Austrian army defeats a French army at the Battle of Pavia”

1412 – The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy

16 January

The House of Medici was an Italian banking family, political dynasty and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de’ Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. The family originated in the Mugello region of the Tuscan countryside, gradually rising until they were able to fund the Medici Bank. The bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century, seeing the Medici gain political power in Florence — though officially they remained citizens rather than monarchs. Continue reading “1412 – The Medici family is appointed official banker of the Papacy”

1797 – The modern Italian flag is first used

7 January

The first entity to use the Italian tricolour was the Cisalpine Republic in 1797, which supplanted Milan after Napoleon’s victorious army crossed Italy in 1796. Continue reading “1797 – The modern Italian flag is first used”

1907 – Maria Montessori opens her first school and daycare center

6 January

Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori (31 August, 1870 – 6 May, 1952) was an Italian physician and educator best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy. Her educational method is in use today in some public and private schools throughout the world. Continue reading “1907 – Maria Montessori opens her first school and daycare center”

1503 – The Battle of Garigliano

29 December

The Battle of Garigliano was fought on this day in 1503 between a Spanish army under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba and a French army commanded by Ludovico II, Marquis of Saluzzo, near Gaeta (present-day Italy). Continue reading “1503 – The Battle of Garigliano”

875 – Charles the Bald King of the Franks is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor Charles II

29 December

Charles the Bald (13 June 823 – 6 October 877) was the King of West Francia (843–77), King of Italy (875–77) and Holy Roman Emperor (875–77, as Charles II). After a series of civil wars that began during the reign of his father, Louis the Pious, Charles succeeded by the Treaty of Verdun (843) in acquiring the western third of the Carolingian Empire. He was a grandson of Charlemagne and the youngest son of Louis the Pious by his second wife, Judith.

800 – The Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome

25 December

Charlemagne also known as Charles the Great or Charles I, was King of the Franks. He united most of Western Europe during the early Middle Ages and laid the foundations for modern France and Germany. Continue reading “800 – The Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome”

69 – Emperor Vitellius is captured and murdered at the Gemonian stairs in Rome

22 December

Vitellius : Aulus Vitellius Germanicus Augustus; (24 September 15 – 22 December 69) was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69. Vitellius was proclaimed emperor following the quick succession of the previous emperors Galba and Otho, in a year of civil war known as the Year of the Four Emperors. Continue reading “69 – Emperor Vitellius is captured and murdered at the Gemonian stairs in Rome”

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