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17th Century

1606 – Guy Fawkes executed for involvement in the Gunpowder Plot

On This Day – 31 January 1606

Guy Fawkes (born 13 April 1570) was executed for his involvement in the 1605 Catholic plot against the Anglican King James I of England and VI of Scotland.

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1644 – John Milton publishes Areopagitica, a pamphlet decrying censorship

On This Day – 23 November 1644

Areopagitica; A speech of Mr. John Milton for the Liberty of Unlicenc’d Printing, to the Parlament of England is a 1644 prose polemical* tract by the English poet, scholar, and polemical author John Milton opposing licensing and censorship. Continue reading “1644 – John Milton publishes Areopagitica, a pamphlet decrying censorship”

1631 – Mumtaz Mahal dies during childbirth

17 June

Her husband, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan I (reigned 1628-1658), will spend the next 17 years building her mausoleum, the Taj Mahal.

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1645 – English Civil War the Battle of Naseby

14 June

The Battle of Naseby, was a decisive engagement of the English Civil War, fought on this day in 1645 between the main Royalist army of King Charles I led by Prince Rupert (12,000 strong) and the Parliamentarian New Model Army (15,000 strong), commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell.

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1615 – Siege of Osaka

Forces under Tokugawa Ieyasu take Osaka Castle and destroy the Toyotomi clan, eliminating the final opposition to the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan.

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1618 – The Second Defenestration of Prague

23 May

Defenestration is the act of throwing someone or something out of a window. There were two incidents in the history of Bohemia in which multiple people were defenestrated. The first occurred in 1419 and the second in 1618, although the term “Defenestration of Prague” more commonly refers to the later incident.

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1648 – The Treaty of Westphalia is signed

15 May

This was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. Continue reading “1648 – The Treaty of Westphalia is signed”

1986 – The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years’ War ends

17 April

The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years’ War was an alleged theoretical state of war between the Netherlands and the Isles of Scilly (located off the southwest coast of Great Britain). Continue reading “1986 – The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years’ War ends”

1606 – The Union Flag is adopted

April

The precursor to the ‘Union Jack’, the Union Flag is adopted in this year as a consequence of the personal union of the crowns of England and Scotland.

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1625 – Charles I becomes King of England, Scotland and Ireland

27 March

Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from this day in 1625 until his execution in 1649. Continue reading “1625 – Charles I becomes King of England, Scotland and Ireland”

1603 – James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England and Ireland

24 March

James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on this day in 1603 until his death. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments, judiciary, and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. Continue reading “1603 – James VI of Scotland becomes James I of England and Ireland”

1622 – Jamestown massacre

22 March

The Indian Massacre of 1622 took place in the English Colony of Virginia, in what now the United States, on this day in 1622. Continue reading “1622 – Jamestown massacre”

1689 – The Williamite War in Ireland begins

12 March

The Williamite War in Ireland (1688–1691), was a conflict between Jacobites (supporters of the Scottish Catholic King James II of England/VII of Scotland) and Williamites (supporters of the Dutch Protestant Prince William of Orange) over who would be King of England, Scotland and Ireland. It is also called the Jacobite War in Ireland or the Williamite–Jacobite War in Ireland. Continue reading “1689 – The Williamite War in Ireland begins”

1613 – Michael I is unanimously elected Tsar by a national assembly, beginning the Romanov dynasty of Imperial Russia

21 February

Michael I of Russia became the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov after the zemskiy sobor of 1613 elected him to rule the Tsardom of Russia. He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov (later known as Patriarch Filaret) and of Xenia (later known as “the great nun” Martha). He is also a nephew of Feodor I (the last Rurikid Tsar) through his aunt Anastasia Romanovna (his paternal grandfather’s sister) and through marriage with Tsar Ivan IV of Russia. His accession marked the end of the Time of Troubles of 1598-1613.

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