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17th Century

1606 – Guy Fawkes executed for involvement in the Gunpowder Plot

On This Day – 31 January 1606

Guy Fawkes (born 13 April 1570) was executed for his involvement in the 1605 Catholic plot against the Anglican King James I of England and VI of Scotland.

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1644 – John Milton publishes Areopagitica, a pamphlet decrying censorship

On This Day – 23 November 1644

Areopagitica; A speech of Mr. John Milton for the Liberty of Unlicenc’d Printing, to the Parlament of England is a 1644 prose polemical* tract by the English poet, scholar, and polemical author John Milton opposing licensing and censorship. Continue reading “1644 – John Milton publishes Areopagitica, a pamphlet decrying censorship”

1631 – Mumtaz Mahal dies during childbirth

17 June

Her husband, Mughal emperor Shah Jahan I (reigned 1628-1658), will spend the next 17 years building her mausoleum, the Taj Mahal.

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1645 – English Civil War the Battle of Naseby

14 June

The Battle of Naseby, was a decisive engagement of the English Civil War, fought on this day in 1645 between the main Royalist army of King Charles I led by Prince Rupert (12,000 strong) and the Parliamentarian New Model Army (15,000 strong), commanded by Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell.

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1615 – Siege of Osaka

Forces under Tokugawa Ieyasu take Osaka Castle and destroy the Toyotomi clan, eliminating the final opposition to the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan.

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1618 – The Second Defenestration of Prague

23 May

Defenestration is the act of throwing someone or something out of a window. There were two incidents in the history of Bohemia in which multiple people were defenestrated. The first occurred in 1419 and the second in 1618, although the term “Defenestration of Prague” more commonly refers to the later incident.

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1648 – The Treaty of Westphalia is signed

15 May

This was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years’ War (1568–1648) between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the independence of the Dutch Republic. Continue reading “1648 – The Treaty of Westphalia is signed”

1986 – The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years’ War ends

17 April

The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years’ War was an alleged theoretical state of war between the Netherlands and the Isles of Scilly (located off the southwest coast of Great Britain). Continue reading “1986 – The Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years’ War ends”

1606 – The Union Flag is adopted

April

The precursor to the ‘Union Jack’, the Union Flag is adopted in this year as a consequence of the personal union of the crowns of England and Scotland.

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