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Ottomans

1805 – Muhammad Ali becomes Wāli of Egypt

17 May

Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas’ud ibn Agha , born 4 March 1769, was an Ottoman Albanian who rose to rule Egypt and Sudan. Continue reading “1805 – Muhammad Ali becomes Wāli of Egypt”

1915 – The Battle of Gallipoli begins

25 April

The invasion of the Turkish Gallipoli Peninsula by Australian, British, French and New Zealand troops begins with landings at ANZAC Cove and Cape Helles.

1915 – The Armenian Genocide begins

24 April

The Armenian Genocide was the Ottoman government’s systematic extermination of its minority Armenian subjects inside their historic homeland, which lies within the present-day Republic of Turkey. Continue reading “1915 – The Armenian Genocide begins”

1453 – Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople

6 April

Mehmed II or Mohammed II (30 March 1432 – 3 May 1481), best known as Mehmed the Conqueror,  was an Ottoman sultan who ruled first for a short time from August 1444 to September 1446, and later from February 1451 to May 1481. At the age of 21, he conquered Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) and brought an end to the Eastern Roman Empire. Mehmed continued his conquests in Anatolia with its reunification and in Southeast Europe as far west as Bosnia. Mehmed is considered a hero in modern-day Turkey and parts of the wider Muslim world. Among other things, Istanbul’s Fatih district, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Fatih Mosque are named after him.

Continue reading “1453 – Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople”

1856 – The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Crimean War

30 March

The Crimean War was a military conflict fought between October 1853 – February 1856 in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia. Continue reading “1856 – The Treaty of Paris is signed, ending the Crimean War”

1917 – World War I: First Battle of Gaza

26 March

The First Battle of Gaza was fought on this day in 1917 during the first attempt by the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) to invade the south of Palestine in the Ottoman Empire during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign of the First World War. Fighting took place in and around the town of Gaza on the Mediterranean coast when infantry and mounted infantry from the Desert Column, a component of the Eastern Force, attacked the town. Late in the afternoon, on the verge of capturing Gaza, the Desert Column was withdrawn due to concerns about the approaching darkness and large Ottoman reinforcements. This British defeat was followed a few weeks later by the even more emphatic defeat of the Eastern Force at the Second Battle of Gaza in April 1917. Continue reading “1917 – World War I: First Battle of Gaza”

1884 – The Siege of Khartoum, Sudan begins

13 March

The Battle of Khartoum, Siege of Khartoum was the conquest of Egyptian held Khartoum by the Mahdist forces led by Muhammad Ahmad. Egypt had held the city for some time prior, but the siege that the Mahdists engineered and carried out from 13 March, 1884, to January 26, 1885 was enough to wrest control away from the Egyptian administration.  Continue reading “1884 – The Siege of Khartoum, Sudan begins”

1916 – WWI: Battle of Magdhaba – Allied forces defeat Turkish forces in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula

23 December

The Battle of Magdhaba took place on this day in 1916 during the Defence of Egypt section of the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in the First World War. The attack by the Anzac Mounted Division took place against an entrenched Ottoman Army garrison to the south and east of Bir Lahfan in the Sinai desert, some 18–25 miles (29–40 km) inland from the Mediterranean coast. This Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) victory against the Ottoman Empire garrison also secured the town of El Arish after the Ottoman garrison withdrew. Continue reading “1916 – WWI: Battle of Magdhaba – Allied forces defeat Turkish forces in Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula”

1444 – Battle of Varna: Crusading forces defeated

10 November

The Battle of Varna took place on this day in 1444 near Varna in eastern Bulgaria. The Ottoman Army under Sultan Murad II defeated the Hungarian-Polish and Wallachian armies commanded by Władysław III of Poland (also King of Hungary), John Hunyadi (acting as commander of the combined Christian forces) and Mircea II of Wallachia. It was the final battle of the Crusade of Varna. Continue reading “1444 – Battle of Varna: Crusading forces defeated”

1494 – Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman sultan is born

6 November

Suleiman I (6 Nov, 1494 – 7 Sep, 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West, was the tenth and longest-reigning Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from 1520 to his death in 1566. Continue reading “1494 – Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman sultan is born”

1529 – The Siege of Vienna begins when the Ottomans attack the city.

27 September – On this day

The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was the first attempt by the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent, to capture the city of Vienna, Austria. Continue reading “1529 – The Siege of Vienna begins when the Ottomans attack the city.”

1789 – The Battle of Râmnic

22 September – On this day

The Battle of Râmnic was fought on this day in 1789. It took place in Wallachia, near Râmnicu Sărat, during the Russo-Turkish War of 1787-1792. Continue reading “1789 – The Battle of Râmnic”

1683 – Battle of Vienna

11-12 September – On this day

The Battle of Vienna took place in Vienna on the 11th/12th in 1683, after the imperial city of Vienna had been besieged by the Ottoman Empire for two months. Continue reading “1683 – Battle of Vienna”

1697 – Battle of Zenta

11 September – On this day

The Battle of Zenta, fought on this day in 1697 just south of Zenta (Serbian: Senta; then part of the Ottoman Empire; today in Serbia), on the east side of the Tisa river, was a major engagement in the Great Turkish War (1683–1699) and one of the most decisive defeats in Ottoman history. Continue reading “1697 – Battle of Zenta”

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