4 July

During the Crusades, Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem at the Battle of Hattin on this day in 1187.

The Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the forces of the Ayyubid sultan Salah ad-Din, known in the West as Saladin fought this battle also known as the Battle of the Horns of Hattin, from a nearby extinct volcano. The Muslim armies under Saladin captured or killed the vast majority of the Crusader forces, removing their capability to wage war. As a direct result of the battle, Muslims once again became the preeminent military power in the Holy Land, re-conquering Jerusalem and several other Crusader-held cities. These Christian defeats prompted the Third Crusade, which began two years after the battle.