Muhammad Ali Pasha al-Mas’ud ibn Agha , born 4 March 1769, was an Ottoman Albanian who rose to rule Egypt and Sudan.
A commander in the Ottoman army, he rose to the rank of Pasha, and became Wāli, and self-declared Khedive of Egypt and Sudan with the Ottomans’ temporary approval. Though not a modern nationalist, he is regarded as the founder of modern Egypt because of the dramatic reforms in the military, economic and cultural spheres that he instituted. He also ruled Levantine territories outside Egypt. The dynasty that he established would rule Egypt and Sudan until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.